It is these vulnerabilities which are the fundamental cause of disasters rather than natural hazards. 0000113394 00000 n The articles of the Encyclopedia of the Environment are made available under the terms of the Creative Commons BY-NC-SA license, which allows reproducing them under the following conditions: Citing the source, no commercial use, sharing identical the initial conditions, reproducing with each use or distribution the mention of this Creative Commons BY-NC-SA license. Download. The environment becomes threatening when nature expresses its devastating power through natural disasters that directly affect societies.This article aims to show how natural disasters have evolved in recent years and what their impacts have been on people. The environment becomes threatening when nature expresses its devastating power through natural disasters that directly affect societies. Other vulnerability factors: Anthropogenic or Human and Developmental: Other available vulnerability factors include: incidence of poverty, access to urban centers and transportation facilities, and the state of the natural environment. Journal of Transport Geography, Submitted. But reducing vulnerability requires an understanding of its mechanisms. 0000003752 00000 n Vulnerability DISASTER Hazard Trigger event Earthquake Tsunamis Floods Cyclones Volcanic eruption Drought �S{�'�z���t4�����}���`�a���9��2c!����.�*Dp9���\Ѫ�_�BY�d3֛�KR���y�ք���!� ���ɯ�\�E+V�~b��Ǔ��bi�ύ��]9�*|N�n�N�L�bo�g�I-�o���o'x 硵�7J�6����I��(�ꭦ��L���v{Ǣ�0m �J�n�d���{a���_$�ڪlYK��ʝ�e�j�j&:6�uCZ+�r��]�&��������������#6�e�Mˇ�W��|�f^n6/j2=2��L��iZ�,Kq2��6۰?x�4 x��L�E7FO��1h�+ܐ=�K3�6�b; While any one extreme event may be unusual, there are broad trends in natural hazards. 0000003231 00000 n 0000002142 00000 n 0000003342 00000 n Figure 1, opposite, shows the evolution of the number of natural disasters and casualties over the past 20 years. Migrants, for example, settle in areas either originally unsafe (susceptible to floods, land slides, etc), or create the potential of man-made disaster (environmental … 0000113468 00000 n To understand it, it is necessary to take into account other explanatory factors, particularly human ones. However, the subsequent tsunami killed more than 18,000 people and caused the Fukushima nuclear accident (see Figure 2). 1.12.1. The main concept of vulnerability expresses the multi-dimensionality of disasters by focusing attention on the totality of relationships in a given social situation which constitute a condition that, in combination with environmental forces, produces a disaster. Disaster Risk = function (Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability) Growing exposure and delays in reducing vulnerabilities result in an increased number of natural disasters and greater levels of loss. 0000002681 00000 n Chemical releases caused by natural hazard events and disasters. Figure 3. While these figures show that a single earthquake can be particularly deadly, climatic phenomena such as floods, storms, heat waves and heat waves are also to be feared in a context of climate change. Figure 2. Website of the IT-GO Rosko 2014 seminar: http://roscoff14.catalyse.info/. Social vulnerability to hazards refers specifically to a lack of ability for individuals and communities to adequately prepare for, respond to, and rebound from environmental hazards. //www.meteofrance.fr/nous-connaitre/activites-et-metiers/la-prevision-meteorologique. We remember in particular the heat wave of 2003 causing 15,000 deaths, mainly among the elderly (link to article Climate change: effects on human health). [Source: © CRED, Author: Lutoff, 2016]The CRED, Centre de Recherches sur l’Épidémiologie des Désastres, identifies all natural events that occur in the world and studies their evolution [1]. In this context, how to understand the complexity of the environment defines as a risk, how to define its social dimension? Disasters and communities: Vulnerability, resilience and preparedness. Social and economic developments are crucial components of disaster preparedness, ... environmental planning and design standards. Society » Disaster Risk Reduction within the BPoA+10 process. MobRISK: A large-scale activity-based mobility model for assessing exposure of road users to flash flood events. Geographical analyses. Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment. How does the damage and loss to people occur and its causes? Publications All → 22 August 2018. The awareness of the great changes taking place on a global scale, of the social responsibility of these great changes, thus invites us to reconsider our relationship with nature. [12] METEO FRANCE. The more capacity one has, the less vulnerable one is, and vice versa. 0000008722 00000 n Atlas des risques en France: Prévenir les catastrophes naturelles et technologiques: Atlas Autrement. [14] Villar Clara and David Michel (2014) Resilience, a tool for territories? Publications All → 22 August 2018. ( VULNERABILITY + HAZARD ) / CAPACITY = DISASTER. Read More. The word vulnerability originally comes from the Latin term vulnus, which means wound. The first scientists to focus on the risk-generating environment were earth or climate scientists. 2. Tangible vulnerability is material. Other vulnerability factors: Anthropogenic or Human and Developmental: Other available vulnerability factors include: incidence of poverty, access to urban centers and transportation facilities, and the state of the natural environment. Climate change is potentially the worst environmental disaster of all time and its progress can only be slowed down if the general negligence in the world can be overcome. Disaster impact is the total effect, including negative effects (e.g., economic losses) and positive effects (e.g., economic gains), of a hazardous event or a disaster. 0000013975 00000 n the natura environment. Step 4: Vulnerability analysis to determine the capacity (or lack of it) of elements at risk to withstand the given hazard scenarios! Vulnerability may also vary in its forms: poverty, for example, may mean that housing is unable to withstand an earthquake or a hurricane, or lack of preparedness may result in a slower response to a disaster, leading to greater loss of life or prolonged suffering. VEYRET, Y. Natural risks in the mountains. It is not just about climate change, or globalisation, or trade agreements. It varies over space and time,… How can we predict that an earthquake and the subsequent tsunami will cause sufficient damage to a nuclear power plant that, combined with various hesitations and human errors, they will lead to the devastation of an entire region? Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazardsn Susan L. Cutter, University of South Carolina Bryan J. Boruff, University of South Carolina W. Lynn Shirley, University of South Carolina Objective. The Environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI) is a measurement devised by the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC), the United Nations Environment Program and others to characterize the relative severity of various types of environmental issues suffered by 243 enumerated individual nations and other geographies (such as Antarctica). A few days later, on May 30, Honshu province in Japan also suffered a 7.0 magnitude earthquake, causing no deaths, only minor damage to buildings and about 100 injuries [3]. Leonardo DiCaprio won an Oscar for his portrayal of fur trapper Hugh Glas… But to this category of vulnerability widely identified by research, studies have shown that motorists are also very vulnerable, particularly to the rapid flooding that characterizes the Mediterranean region. It is on the basis of existing models at different scales and by coupling them with field observation, that Météo France’s forecasters are able to indicate the weather in the coming days and even weeks [12]. Pre – Disaster: Before a disaster to reduce the potential for human, material or environmental losses caused by hazards and to ensure that these losses are minimized when the disaster actually strikes. Introduction Who is vulnerable to natural disasters and other environmental hazards and to what extent are fundamental questions in vulnerability reduction e orts [1–3]. To see the environment as a potential danger therefore implies reconsidering man’s relationship with nature and its devastating power. Keywords: education; disaster vulnerability; disaster risk reduction; Southeast Asia; review; policy implications 1. [�R33���N،Ol�~�I.Z"����j9����� Defining Determinants of Risk: Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability Disaster Risk • Disaster risk signifies the possibility of adverse effects in the future. Vulnerability in this context can be defined as the diminished capacity of an individual or group to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural or man-made hazard. From: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 2012 Home » In France, for example, of the 86 events that have struck the country over the past 20 years, the most deadly are extreme temperatures, with more than 24,000 deaths. 9-13. The work in this field has thus made it possible to identify certain specific factors. Vulnerability to Disasters 1. Thus, in Europe, half of the victims who lose their lives during flash floods are motorists [10]. endstream endobj 194 0 obj<> endobj 195 0 obj<> endobj 196 0 obj<>stream Irrespective of their origins, they usually instigate physical, social, economic and/or environmental vulnerabilities. Reducing Vulnerability. Disaster Impacts in SIDS. Journal of Hydrology, 361(1-2): 199-213. (2004) Geography of natural hazards in France. Read More. A natural disaster is therefore the result of the combination over the same space and time of a physical phenomenon (climatic, hydrological, geophysical) and a society characterized by a greater or lesser vulnerability to this phenomenon. However, much remains to be done to improve the overall understanding of what happens when the environment becomes threatening and to be able to deliver this type of information. Observation, analysis and modelling efforts are still required to meet the environmental challenges ahead. 187 0 obj<>stream The dramatic consequences of the thousand leaf effect”[Online], accessed July 19, 2016, available at URL www.brgm.fr/sites/default/files/evenement_exposition_seisme_img08_original.pdf, [3] IRSN, “Myiagi Earthquake (Japan) of Monday 26 May 2003, Magnitude 7 at 9:24 GTM”,[Online], put online on 30 May 2003, accessed on 19 July 2016, available at URL www.irsn.fr/FR/connaissances/Installations_nucleaires/La_surete_Nucleaire/risque_sismique_installations_nucleaires/Documents/irsn_Seisme-Japon_052003.pdf, [4] CNRS, “Bam 2003: a devastating earthquake”, CNRS Théma,[Online], online before December 2005, accessed 19 July 2016, URL: www2.cnrs.fr/presse/thema/724.htm, [5] BOUHDIBA, S. “Lisbon, November 1, 1755: a coincidence? Addressing current environmental challenges, www.brgm.fr/sites/default/files/evenement_exposition_seisme_img08_original.pdf, www.irsn.fr/FR/connaissances/Installations_nucleaires/La_surete_Nucleaire/risque_sismique_installations_nucleaires/Documents/irsn_Seisme-Japon_052003.pdf. To cite this article: LUTOFF Céline (2020), Natural disasters: when the environment becomes a threat, Encyclopedia of the Environment, [online ISSN 2555-0950] url : https://www.encyclopedie-environnement.org/en/society/natural-disasters-when-environment-becomes-a-threat/. Models have long been used by natural scientists to better understand complex natural phenomena, such as the circulation of cloud masses in the atmosphere. -D., ANQUETIN, S., LUTOFF C. (2008). Vulnerability Analysis David Alexander University College London 2. Disasters are caused by the interaction of vulnerability and hazards. Chemical releases caused by natural hazard events and disasters. 0000004126 00000 n Nature once again recalls its power and worries inhabitants and public authorities when the environment becomes a source of risk for populations, their property and their activities. BPoA+10 Regional Preparatory Meetings. d���Y@�2))!y�����cIR���n��@Z��V�00~g��|���3���c|�$�p]PKH\(^�Y`�@��=�)�)00o)�uePc4ac0b2bb����ɛq#C3�1�Fڬ��l_1)1T�Ƙ˘�x�a�����2~V Since urban vulnerability to disasters is after all a function of human behaviour/lifestyles, there is a need for a better undewstanding to (a) explain what constitutes an urban vulnerability, (b) build a clear nexus between urban vulnerability and environmental degradation, (c) identify vulnerabilities using assessment tools, and (d) understand the potential of multi-hazards in an urban context. 185 31 Consequently, policies aimed at addressing risk and vulnerability must … October 2001; Disaster Prevention and Management 10(4) ... and offering CBDRT training in the post-disaster environment. Vulnerability Vulnerability is defined by the ISDR as “conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a … In general, vulnerability means the potential to be harmed. 0000009294 00000 n It derives from the interaction of social and environmental processes, from the combination of physical hazards and the vulnerabilities … The idea is therefore not to accurately reproduce reality, but rather to give oneself the means to test the role played by the various factors involved in the process. He has no doubt about the social responsibility of the disaster (Bouhdida, 2014, [5]). Information for public health authorities . Information for public health authorities . {LC~���6��{.�{n���!�dK۸x}l&h.��7� For example, we reproduce the floodable road network and look at the variables that affect people’s exposure on these roads: the time of departure, the decision whether or not to cross certain critical points, or the route taken, for example [11]. H�tWˮ]9�߯�?���.O �R#� Q:���%Z���zخs;�(J�:e��U�ퟞ?|���w_?�����|��z��S�����E��2�����_���7�|�iw�r5�{jwcR�N8�&����o�� ���߽O������ϟ�?������}y����˧��B�����`�t�VzA�����D��m������߿��_�~x������}�>_����޿�#l�|��W�������׿����׵��Y�U%��z�a���4+|u��C�{1n�o|ӘBd��5AI�#>�%��]�ó� �=�?k�,⧧�Os�y��^�r�w������2_1��KqmꝫaJYq����'z5�>Lb��-� �&��a9��)J�d�;ی'��vB��9�L�d����Y祘�ܛ��!��~�iC%��(j��9�-��A���v�p�[���s�����|`�=��;��†.xܜ6�ʈ�f?��m�,"����S��k4;��n:?��|�]������9hQ��K�r�=�a~C��g˘�3.Sߌem�n�"���W�ۖ�U��� �]�(I�,E+,j ֽ(ӓ1��(V!�ŧd�F{3���,'��- ԗg�,3�������gHT��ZJͬo,':,��[!E�եW=1�ټ �с�Y��zG��4�r�Wg>X�h^�KB,2,^���V, Finally, we explain how this research can be useful to operational actors in managing disaster situations and what developments are needed in how we view our relationship with nature, to cope with environmental changes and future natural disasters. Most reduce disaster losses in lives, livelihoods and health by 2030 (see Annex 1). Editions Flammarion. Download. A window of vulnerability (WOV) is a time frame within which defensive measures are diminished, compromised or lacking.. The concept of vulnerability encompasses a variety of definitions. The idea is therefore not to seek to control nature to prevent phenomena from occurring, but rather to find the internal resources of societies and territories to cope with events and limit their impacts. Disaster Vulnerability and Environmental Justice The social dynamics that underlie the disproportionate environmental hazards faced by low-income communities and minorities also play out in the arena of disaster prevention, mitigation, and recovery. The Environmental Encyclopedia is published by the Association des Encyclopédies de l'Environnement et de l'Énergie (www.a3e.fr), which is contractually linked to Grenoble Alpes University and Grenoble INP, and sponsored by the French Academy of Sciences. It is therefore from natural disasters themselves that researchers are trying to better understand what vulnerability is, how it is expressed, in an attempt to reduce it. The vulnerability of communities to hazards refers to their susceptibility to and capacity to cope with environmental stresses. Vulnerability and Environment . The number of deaths generated by these natural disasters (green curve) is marked by some particularly deadly events. �j�� F1�I��j��� ���R�E�S�f~J����Z�t50X=��k� �7��T �'� ��5W/y5��FgFO���D��Q����AP����Ă���(�&�YCCC;`0�b����`6��T L�JՌji %%�QP���(,))!Բ`wH=HT Disaster is also ... economic and social vulnerability to threats and the underlying causes for this vulnerability. Algeria was hit on 21 May by the 6.7 magnitude Boumerdès earthquake, which killed 2,300 people, injured 10,200 and left 180,000 homeless [2]. For so-called natural disasters, hazard refers to the input from the environment, such as volcanic activity, precipitation or lack thereof, a microbial pathogen, or climatic trends. <<4fa5b2ea718dcb4b81f4ced6a9c1718a>]>> This probability depends on multiple factors, which researchers are working to define and evaluate. Disaster vulnerability in anthropological perspective In the study of disasters, the con-cept of vulnerability has been pri- ... tributions of certain populations in proximity to environmental and technological hazards and an individual or group ability to “anticipate, cope with, resist and recover” from disaster … Over the past centuries, science has made it possible to advance in the understanding of natural phenomena and to implement technical solutions that ensure a certain control of the phenomena. We explain how science approaches the environment when it becomes a threat and what tools are used to observe, understand, model and predict natural phenomena and their possible impacts. %%EOF Resilience: societies and territories facing uncertainty, risks and disasters. ��UG�����WY��pe�E��P���Y�O�����``U ,�pH1`���'�j��2u��j���(f���4��d�@�l^p�ؒ4���˛�v>+]��lP�"k�)�]OV=�ffx+0����+X����`�%�*b���;Yj���r���|B��� Q`E�I��ONM�����η¡�ki�e]���N���������Ԑ��/�6s�:M�6_-d�Wo�e6���;n4�r��L^3�� �Tf)y4�#vW��G�\�O�����`U(��7w�_��C���ú��ב�@W+dαZ��[-?-�l�����+Y This is all the more true since some events, such as the Fukushima tragedy in Japan in 2011, highlight very high levels of complexity. Based on the proposed definition in psychology, resilience applied to the territory means knowing how to “find the necessary capacities to adapt to hazards” [14]. learning-based disaster risk reduction e orts in the region. Observation and data collection is an essential phase in understanding both physical and social processes. Vulnerability to natural hazards is thus the potential to be harmed by natural hazards. According to 2015 statistics, between 1994 and 2015, more than 8,600 natural disasters killed more than 1.5 million people worldwide, or nearly 76,000 victims per year directly related to natural phenomena. This earthquake itself will have few victims. This interdisciplinary work is carried out in stages, throughout the treatment chain, which makes it possible to understand natural risks. Defined as “the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard… arising from various physical, social, economic, and environmental factors ” (UNISDR-United Nations International Strategy for Disaster … The concept of vulnerability encompasses a variety of definitions. ... vulnerability to disasters is also a The danger of flooding on the road [Source : © Fotolia#7614092]Recent research shows that mobility is a particularly important vulnerability factor when faced with floods. 0000113812 00000 n People with reduced mobility (the elderly, young children, disabled people) are more vulnerable than others. Disaster = Hazard + Vulnerability - Capacity. “Social vulnerability highlights differences in the human capacity to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Despite this, dramatic events of natural origin regularly raise the question of the real control of nature by mankind, encouraging great humility. 43, pp. 0000009545 00000 n The term includes economic, human and environmental impacts, and may include death, injuries, disease and other negative effects on human physical, mental and social well-being. UNISDR Terminology (2017) Vulnerability is one of the defining components of disaster risk. The preferred approach was to study vulnerability. This debate heralds a major shift in the way we think about the links between risk and society. concentrations substantially increase disaster vulnerability, particularly of low-income urban dwellers. 0000045601 00000 n 185 0 obj<> endobj (dir.) In the disaster risk field, vulnerability is defined as the conditions determined by physical, social, economic, and environmental factors or processes, which increase the Since losses vary geographically, over time, and among different social groups, vulnerability also varies over time and space. In addition to the concept of risk and vulnerability, there are also the concepts of adaptation and resilience. Géorisques, n°1, coll. Urbanisation. Managing environmental health risks in emergencies. : “The vulnerability of societies and territories to natural threats”. Yet “disasters are real indicators of human and territorial vulnerabilities within affected communities and societies” [9]. 0000023381 00000 n They can be the result of human error, negligence, lack of foresight, incompetence or greed. Voltaire defends a naturalistic vision of the event and sees it as an unfortunate coincidence. ^��O ����s` Example : Wetlands, such as the Caroni Swamp, are sensitive to increasing salinity from sea water, and pollution from stormwater … On December 26, however, the 6.5 magnitude Bams earthquake struck south-east Iran, killing 35,000 people, injuring 30,000 and destroying almost the entire city [4]. cx /� DK�� This raises the question of how researchers can help to understand these phenomena. [6] BECK, U. x�b```b``��������A��b�,��{$�X�3�1�E��nrw��>�-a�q�)�_�����+�7��a���ܽ�����u� n�~f��k�b��~�� Z;��YeY�g�Z투�g��Y��|����&�0 &�N�.��%��O�O՘3�hVs�B��|s�8~-����բ5Mۧ��r���Qsf5L�c��I�˱E-`�7⋓8^=��¶2i˩Ũ9?��t���z��(ش͜��.d����* �tBfrm� �y/o��"�[0���4��[4�E�|蟥����t������pM�$"��o0���$�fɘ"�,'�K������d�����N�������IMϘ׼ They are the convergence of hazards and vulnerable conditions. Some people and places are more vulnerable to certain hazards than other people and places. New York, Routledge, 470 p. [9] LEONE, F., VINET, F. (2006). landslides and floods, incl. Reducing risks must therefore also include limiting the vulnerability of companies and their assets and activities. Editions Quae. 2) Stock taking The severity of the impacts of disasters depends strongly on the level of exposure and vulnerability in the affected area, and evidence indicates that risk has increased worldwide largely due to increases in the exposure of persons and assets. In actual fact, vulnerability depends on several factors, such as people's age and state of health, local Environmental vulnerability studies carried out by BARA researchers have focused on rural populations in the U.S.-Mexico border region of Arizona and Sonora. They venture into the wilderness where help and modern conveniences are far removed. However, modelling can sometimes be useful in association with field observations. �'�q��LA��d����9q�[�q"�0��̩p�,{�g��|>0W��Q��,n9��ga:`��� � � � � � � � rೀ� ���P���_%5\?�dn!P��W�����;|?zMU��_ AI�F On the road to another modernity, translated from German by L. Bernardi”, Communication Questions[Online], 2 | 2002, online on 23 July 2013, accessed 19 July 2016, available at URL: communication questions.revues.org/7281. Disaster Vulnerability and Environmental Degradation: Gecekondus Rusen Keles and Cevat Geray link E. Earthquakes in Turkey link 9 The 1992 Erzincan Earthquake: A Case Study Polat Gülkan and Oktay Ergünay link 10 Reducing Disaster Impacts Through Earthquake Injury Grenoble Alpes, INRAE, UR ETNA, Due to their frequency and sometimes very large volumes in young mountain ranges (Himalayas, Andes,…, Denis FABRE, Professor Emeritus of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers de Paris (CNAM), Construction & Energétique Team (ICENER), 4. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction highlights that: “Policies and practices for disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Understanding what happens when the environment becomes a risk therefore requires an understanding of the multiple dimensions of the complex physical and social phenomena that take place on the site and over the time of the event. Vulnerability is most often associated with poverty, but it can also arise when people are isolated, insecure and defenceless in the face of risk, shock or stress. As the ruins of Tacloban in the Philippines show, after the passage of Typhoon Hayan…, Frank ROUX, Professor at the Université Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire d’aérologie, Toulouse, In the headwaters of the Alps, the Pyrenees and the Massif Central, mountain torrents are…, Guillaume PITON, Researcher at Univ. LANG, M., HEART, D. (2014). 0000000916 00000 n Fundamentally, the perspective taken here is that disaster is socially constructed and that vulnerability is a dynamic process that depends on a host of contextual factors. For instance, people who live on plains are more vulnerable to floods than people who live higher up. Paper published at the IT-GO Rosko 2014 seminar (Roscoff, 22-23 May 2014). Vulnerability describes the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard. Environmental capabilities are hypothesized, in both theories, as associated with reduced levels of disaster vulnerability and an increased likelihood of resilient recovery. Failed Development gh leve s of poverty and inequa ty. rect and systemic economic losses. By characterizing these trends, we … From hazard to management. Examples include organizational or political factors: is society prepared for such events, can institutions react in time to limit impacts? Fundamentally, the perspective taken here is that disaster is socially constructed and that vulnerability is a dynamic process that depends on a host of contextual factors. [13] LANG, M., HEART, D., BROCHOT, S. (2003). The science of vulnerability is relatively recent, but theoretical links between pre-event socio-economics and general adverse outcomes date back decades. If a large city develops in a country’s least hazardous location while a village is placed in a canyon subject to flash floods, rockfalls, avalanches, and more, then the overall disaster risk might be more for the village, despite the large difference in population-based vulnerability and depending how hazard and vulnerability are quantified for calculating disaster risk. These questions are at the heart of current research on risks, particularly in the face of climate change. , occur due to characteristics of both natural systems and human vulnerability: Centre... Edition ( 1st edition in 1994 ) to resist a hazard or to respond positively. Social groups, vulnerability also varies over time and space natural hazards physical and social vulnerability highlights differences what is environmental vulnerability in disaster! The same coin, CREUTIN, J a magnitude 9 earthquake struck Honshu Island in Japan the situation test. Ulrich Beck, La société du risque modelling efforts are still required to meet the environmental challenges ahead is prepared. Understand natural risks natural systems and human systems, S. ( 2015 ) (... Development gh leve s of poverty and inequa ty the post-disaster environment socio-economics general... Societies ” [ 9 ] LEONE, F. ( 2006 ) 2008 ) affect societies occur and causes... 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( Roscoff, 22-23 may 2014 ) also varies over time and space a disaster has occurred keywords education! Risk, what is environmental vulnerability in disaster to define its social dimension directly affect societies exposure of road users to flood!, dramatic events of natural disasters: when the environment becomes a.... De France ”, “ Ulrich Beck, La société du risque & h.��7�?. Consists in producing a reduced model of the same coin situation to test the of. 2006 ) by L. Bernardi who live higher up International Health Regulations ( 2005 ) and events. Economic and/or environmental vulnerabilities underlying social, economic, social, and among different groups.

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